Конкурентоспроможність національної економіки

Marcinkiewicz Cezary. Management of the modern polish tourism in the context of competition and creating customers` behaviour

The twenty-first century is characterized by an increasing tendency for the choice of new types of tourism in Poland as well as all over the world. Even today it becomes necessary to move away from a conventional and slightly common tourist offer for innovative, more attractive proposals which take into account individual customer needs and newly created types of tourism.

In marketing orientation in action the consumer and his needs are a starting point for undertaking any ventures. It is also visible in selling tourist service. The firm more often has to adjust itself to individual needs, establishing only a standard product. In tourism many different factors, which are subject to analysis and marketing research, influence customer behaviour.

People buy those products and decide on those services which reflect their role and position in society. The choice of the consumer also depends on personal factors such as: age, profession, economic conditions, lifestyle, personality, and own image. Purchase preferences, which concern different products, change together with age. The demand for food products, flat furniture or cars is shaped differently in the period of population explosion and decline.

Needs connected with tourism are included into a group of higher needs- from social needs (holiday abroad Polish borders) to self-actualization needs (taking part in pilgrimages).

The consumer while making a decision is guided by his previous experience and he aspires to get satisfaction from a product. If he gets it then he strengthens his attitude to this brand name and often creates the attitude of a loyal customer to a producer.

Consumer behaviour has great importance to both specialists of different fields: marketing, psychology etc. and the consumer itself.

The reference group i.e. the group to which a person wants to belong to, which he identifies with, and which norms of behaviour he accepts, is one of the most important factors shaping human behaviour.

Reference groups are a model of socially accepted behaviour for the individual, which provides assessment criteria for own action and other people´s actions.

It is often said that the sale of tourist services is based on selling dreams but those dreams can too easily become a nightmare for consumers if they do not get products of good quality. In marketing management of a tourist firm the consumer and his individual needs are a starting point for all its decisions.

In tourism many factors influence consumer behaviour. By applying psychological methods in examining consumer behaviour we can get to know their needs, preferences, opinions, attitudes, motives, plans, and intentions.